Varieties of diseases of broiler chickens
The most dangerous periods in broiler breeding are 0-5 days, 20-25 days, 35-40 days. At this time, special attention should be paid to the condition of the chicks, their activity, the quality of feed eating.
Aspergillosis. Disease is provoked by molds, which are actively developing due to the interruption of ventilation, high humidity. Upon contact with the respiratory tract, fungal spores cause vivid symptoms:
● stunted growth;
● weak movability;
● lowering the wings;
Without treatment, broilers die in 1-3 days. Death rate is 100%.
Marek's disease. The disease spreads within the stock. The disease most often affects young chickens of 20 weeks. The disease develops gradually, starting with the following symptoms:
● the bird hangs one or two wings at once;
● lowered tail;
● neck dislocation;
● liver damage;
● semi-paralysis (chickens fall to their feet);
● partial or complete loss of vision.
Mortality caused by Marek's disease is up to 30%. The peculiarity is that the disease is incurable.
Newcastle disease. The viral disease spreads rapidly within the stock. The causative agent of Newcastle disease can affect young chickens even inside the egg during the incubation period. Signs of the disease are:
● temperature up to 43-44 degrees;
● craw appearance. Moreover, there is no food in the craw;
● secretion of smelly mucus from the beak;
● liquid feces with traces of mucus, blood;
● open beak;
● paralysis, paresis;
● the wings hang down;
● comb, beard become blue;
● growth retardation.
Bronchopneumonia. Common disease that develops in young chickens aged 14 to 30 days. Broiler chicks with bronchopneumonia:
● wheeze at night;
● characteristically extend the neck forward;
● breathe hard, opening the beak, even in cool weather.
Without therapy, chickens lose strength dramatically. They are not active, eat poorly, do not gain weight.
Hypovitaminosis A. Retinol deficiency adversely affects the growth process. Without vitamin A, the process of juvenile molting is slowed down, feathers do not grow well, coordination of movements is impaired. The poultry does not see food well in the evening. It is very easy to prevent hypovitaminosis. It is necessary to feed a specialized PMVS and fresh carrots.
Dyspepsia. Gastric juice of poultry affected by dyspepsia contains insufficient amounts of digestive enzymes. Even the best food is poorly digested. Deficiency of enzymes in digestive juice can be caused by:
● rancid or rotten feed;
● grain affected by fungi;
● stagnation of drinking water in waterers;
● feeding chickens with food that does not correspond to their age. For example, a frugal farmer buys only growth feed for broilers, and gives it to everyone: day-old chicks, month-old chicks and broilers at the final stage of feeding.
Dyspepsia in broilers can be suspected by the foul-smelling feces of unnatural color (white, yellow, foamy, with mucus). Without treatment, the bird weakens and becomes lethargic.
Coccidiosis is a scourge of turkeys and broilers. The simplest microorganisms of coccidia infect young chickens aged 15 to 60 days. Coccidiosis affects the poultry intestines. Even the most bioavailable, high-quality food is simply not digested. The profitability of poultry production drops sharply.
Signs of coccidiosis are:
● feces with traces of blood;
● strong thirst;
● lethargy of the poultry;
● loss of appetite;
● disheveled plumage;
● pallor of the comb, earrings, beard.
Coccidiosis without treatment leads to 100% death of the poultry stock. Therefore, reliable producers of feed for broilers must introduce coccidiostats into the starter, growth compound feed in order to prevent the disease.
Colibacteriosis. Pathogenic bacteria affect the digestive system of the broiler. Disease symptoms:
● loss of appetite;
● increased temperature.
Colibacillosis in broilers is treated by antibiotics in the form of watering.
Chicken pox. The virus is spread by parasites (lice, rodents). The pathogen affects the mucous membranes of the eyes, digestive system, respiratory tract.
Signs of chicken pox:
● breathing problems;
● red spots on the carcass, which in 2-3 days turn into scabs;
● weakness and apathy of the poultry;
● foul odor from infected poultry stock.
It is possible to cure chicken pox only in the initial stages. Veterinarians and zootechnicians recommend the use of boric acid and furacillin for treatment.
Mycoplasmosis. The disease spreads very quickly in the poultry stock. Mycoplasmosis is accompanied by high mortality. The death rate of young chickens is 25%, adults - up to 5%. Symptoms of the disease:
● abrupt weight loss;
● mucus from the nasal passages;
● breathing problems;
● secretion of mucus from the neck. Therefore, sick poultry stretches its neck.
Bird flu. The viral disease affects the respiratory tract of broilers. Signs of bird flu:
● increased body temperature;
● liquid stool;
● lethargy. The poultry is just standing in a cage.
The disease is not curable. Poultry stock where bird flu has been detected is being destroyed.
Pullorosis. Infectious disease of broilers. It develops especially acutely in young poultry stock. Adult poultry has no symptoms of pullorosis. Signs of the disease:
● heavy breathing;
● apathy of the poultry, lethargy.
At the first symptoms of the disease, broilers should be given antibiotics immediately.
Salmonellosis. The pathogen is transmitted by air, through feed, general equipment, waterers and feeders. Broiler hens are more susceptible to disease. Symptoms:
● redness and inflammation of the cloaca;
● swelling of the paws;
● swelling of the comb;
● decreased or complete loss of appetite.
The danger of salmonellosis is that it is an anthropozoan disease that is transmitted from poultry to humans. Therefore, special attention is paid to prevention with antisalmonella serum. Furazolidone is used to treat the disease.